Flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- “two”, and πτερόν pteron “wing”. Insects of this order use only a single pair of wings to fly, the hindwings having evolved into advanced mechanosensory organs known as halteres, which act as high-speed sensors of rotational movement and allow dipterans to perform advanced aerobatics. Diptera is a large order containing an estimated 1,000,000 species including horse-flies,[a] crane flies, hoverflies and others, although only about 125,000 species have been described.
Flies have a mobile head, with a pair of large compound eyes, and mouthparts designed for piercing and sucking (mosquitoes, black flies and robber flies), or for lapping and sucking in the other groups. Their wing arrangement gives them great maneuverability in flight, and claws and pads on their feet enable them to cling to smooth surfaces. Flies undergo complete metamorphosis; the eggs are often laid on the larval food-source and the larvae, which lack true limbs, develop in a protected environment, often inside their food source. Other species like Metopia argyrocephala are ovoviviparous, opportunistically depositing hatched or hatching maggots instead of eggs on carrion, dung, decaying material, or open wounds of mammals. The pupa is a tough capsule from which the adult emerges when ready to do so; flies mostly have short lives as adults.
Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.
Fruit flies are of concern both as nuisance pests and as serious contaminators of food. Large populations of these flies can very quickly buildup in restaurants, hotels, cafeterias, and similar food service establishments. Structures or areas in the vicinity of orchards, vineyards, truck crop acreages, etc., are frequently invaded. The ability of the adults to appear from “nowhere” when fruits are exposed and the fact that they seem to be “everywhere” are sources of amazement for most homeowners and individuals in the food industry. Food processing plants, including wineries, pickle plants, dehydrators, and canneries (especially tomato canneries), consider fruit flies to be a greater menace than any other insect pest. These flies cause a high percentage of the insect contamination of fruit and fruit products.
The main issue with fruit flies is that they of course carry diseases, bacteria, and viruses. These fruit flies enjoy rotting foods and consequently may be exposed to bacteria, disease, etc. These same fruit flies land on just about everything in your house, which includes your toothbrush, plates, cutlery, and glasses. You then ingest food or liquid off of these objects. Not just that, once the bacteria is transmitted onto these objects, the bacteria begins to expand. Thus, you are essentially eating those rotting foods yourself.
CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT MEASURES:
Remove all rotting foods and beverages. When finding a piece of food or beverage with a lot of fruit flies on it, get a grocery bag and trap the buggers into the bag as you place it over the item. Clean the surfaces of your house. Although the food may be gone, there may be liquids still on your kitchen table or counter that may have fruit fly eggs in them or might attract surviving flies.
Drain Flies or Moth Flie
Drain flies or moth flies are small, dark winged and non-biting gnats. Their wings are covered with scales so they disappear in a cloud of fine dust when swatted or mashed. These nuisance gnats can be found resting on walls or ceilings, and make short hopping flights if disturbed. They can live most anywhere that water accumulates for a week or more. Common indoor sites include the fine slime layer that develops along the water surface in infrequently used toilet bowls and tanks, in sink or floor drains in basements or garages, or drain pans under refrigerators.
Drain flies don’t generally bite and are harmless to humans. However, they do frequent extremely unsanitary areas and there is evidence that drain flies can carry pathogenic bacteria as a result.
CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT MEASURES:
Control of drain flies should be aimed at elimination of breeding sites. The most effective control method is to clean pipes and traps thoroughly to remove accumulated slime. Pouring hot water down the drain may provide short-term control.