Rodents (from Latin rodere, ‘to gnaw’) are mammals of the order Rodentia (/roʊˈdɛnʃə/), which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% of all mammal species are rodents. They are native to all major land masses except for New Zealand, Antarctica, and several oceanic islands, though they have subsequently been introduced to most of these land masses by human activity.
Rodents are extremely diverse in their ecology and lifestyles and can be found in almost every terrestrial habitat, including human-made environments. Species can be arboreal, fossorial (burrowing), saltatorial/richochetal (leaping on their hind legs), or semiaquatic. However, all rodents share several morphological features, including having only a single upper and lower pair of ever-growing incisors. Well-known rodents include mice, rats, squirrels, prairie dogs, porcupines, beavers, guinea pigs, and hamsters. Rabbits, hares, and pikas, whose incisors also grow continually (but have two pairs of upper incisors instead of one), were once included with them, but are now considered to be in a separate order, the Lagomorpha. Nonetheless, Rodentia and Lagomorpha are sister groups, sharing a single common ancestor and forming the clade of Glires.
Rodents are some of the most troublesome and damaging rodents in the World. They eat and contaminate food, damage structures and property, and transmit parasites and diseases to other animals and humans. Rodents live and thrive in a wide variety of climates and conditions and are often found in and around homes and other buildings, on farms, and in gardens and open fields.
House mouse, us musculus, House mice are small rodents with relatively large ears and small, black eyes. They weigh about 1/2 ounce and usually are light brownish to gray. An adult is about 5 to 7 inches long, including the 3- to 4-inch tail
Norway Rodents, Rattus norvegicus, sometimes called brown or sewer Rodents, are stocky burrowing rodents that are larger than roof Rodents.
Roof Rodents, Rattus. rattus, sometimes called black Rodents, are slightly smaller than Norway Rodents. Unlike Norway Rodents, their tails are longer than their heads and bodies combined.
Rodents, such as mice and Rodents, can leave droppings that can spread bacteria, contaminate food, and cause allergic reactions. Droppings can also spread diseases and viruses such as the following:
Hantavirus – Hantavirus is a potentially life-threatening disease transmitted to humans by rodents primarily, the white-footed deer mouse. People become infected through exposure or inhalation of infected rodent urine, droppings or saliva, and the chances increase when people are near spaces where rodents are actively living.
Bubonic plague – is usually spread by the bite of an infected rodent flea and can cause fever, headache and painfully swollen lymph nodes.
Salmonellosis – Salmonellosis is a type of food poisoning spread by rodent feces, especially through the consumption of contaminated food. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain.
Rat-Bite Fever- Rat-bite fever (RBF) is a potentially fatal infectious disease spread by infected rodents or the consumption of food contaminated by rodents.
CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT MEASURES:
Discourage Rodents and mice from taking up residence on your property by removing food and water sources, and items that can provide them shelter:
Seal holes inside and outside the home to keep rodents out. This may be as simple as plugging small holes with steel wool, or patching holes in inside or outside walls. Remove potential rodent nesting sites from your property, including leaf piles and deep mulch. Clean up food and water sources in and near your house. Keep kitchen garbage in containers with tight-fitting lids. Turn compost piles to cover newly added food scraps. Stop feeding outdoor birds while you are controlling an infestation or feed only husk less items that leave less residue that can be food for rodents.